8-48. FLIGHT CONTROLS
The aircraft is stable under all normal light conditions. Aileron, elevator, rudder, and trim tab controls function ef-
fectively throughout all normal light conditions. Elevator control forces are relatively light in the extreme aft CG
(center of gravity) condition, progressing to moderately high with CG at the forward limit. Extending and retracting
the landing gear causes only slight changes in control pressure. Control pressures resulting from changes in power
settings or the repositioning of the wing laps are not excessive in the landing coniguration at the most forward CG.
The minimum speed at which the aircraft can be fully trimmed is 106 KIAS (gear and laps down, propellers at high
RPM). Control forces produced by changes in speed, power setting, wing lap position and landing gear position are
light and can be overcome with one hand on the control wheel. Trim tabs permit the pilot to reduce these forces to
zero. During single engine operation, the rudder boost system aids in relieving the relatively high rudder pressures
resulting from the large variation in power.
8-49. LEVEL FLIGHT CHARACTERISTICS
All level light characteristics are conventional throughout the level light speed range.
SECTION V. ADVERSE ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
The purpose of this section is to inform the pilot of the special precautions and procedures to be followed during the
various weather conditions that may be encountered in light. This section is primarily narrative; only those checklists
that cover speciic procedures characteristic of weather operations are included. The checklist in Section II provides
for adverse environmental operations.
8-51. COLD WEATHER OPERATIONS.
To ensure adequate bleed air pressure to the deice boots, do not simultaneously actuate the surface
and antenna deice systems in the manual mode.
Operation of the surface deice system in ambient temperatures below -40°C can cause permanent
damage to the deice boots.
Under conditions where one bleed air source is inoperative, suficient bleed air pressure for deice
boot inlation may not be available. Prior to deice boot inlation, check the regulated bleed air pres-
sure gauge for a minimum of 16 PSI. If insuficient pressure exists, increasing engine N 1 and/or
decreasing aircraft altitude will increase bleed air pressure.
Operational dificulties may be encountered during extremely cold weather, unless proper steps are taken prior to,
or immediately after light. All personnel should understand and be fully aware of the necessary procedures and
a. Preparation for Flight.
Ice, snow, or frost formations having as little thickness and surface roughness as medium or coarse
sandpaper on the leading edge or upper surface of a wing can reduce lift by as much as 30 percent
and increase drag by 40 percent.
Accumulations of snow, ice, or frost on aircraft surfaces will adversely affect takeoff distance, climb performance,
and stall speed to a dangerous degree. Such accumulations must be removed before light. In addition to the
normal exterior checks, following the removal of ice, snow, or frost, inspect wing and empennage surfaces to verify
that these surfaces remain suficiently cleared. Also, move all control surfaces to conirm full freedom of movement.