Taxiing shall be in accordance
avoid bogging down the aircraft. Under cold, icy, arctic
conditions, additional mooring is required, and added
precautions must be taken to avoid skidding during towing
operations. The particular problems to be encountered
under adverse weather conditions and the special
methods designed to avoid damage to the aircraft are
covered by the various phases of the ground handling
procedures included in this section of general ground
When the aircraft is being towed, a
handling instructions. (Refer to TM 55-1500-204-25/1.)
qualified person must be in the pilot's
seat to maintain control by use of the
brakes. When towing, do not exceed
nose gear turn limits. Avoid short
Parking is defined as the normal condition under
radius turns, and always keep the
which the aircraft will be secured while on the ground.
inside or pivot wheel turning during
This condition may vary from the temporary expedient of
the operation. Do not tow aircraft
setting the parking brake and shocking the wheels to the
with rudder locks installed, as severe
more elaborate mooring procedures described in
damage to the nose steering linkage
paragraph 2-103. The proper steps for securing the
When moving aircraft
aircraft must be based on the time the aircraft will be left
backwards, do not apply the brakes
unattended, the aircraft weight, the expected wind
abruptly. Tow the aircraft slowly,
direction and velocity, and the anticipated availability of
avoiding sudden stops, especially
ground and air crews for mooring and/or evacuation.
over snowy, icy, rough, soggy, or
When practical head the aircraft into the wind, especially
muddy terrain. In arctic climates, the
if strong winds are forecast or if it will be necessary to
aircraft must be towed by the main
leave the aircraft overnight. Set the parking brake and
gears, as an immense breakaway
chock the wheels securely. Following engine shutdown,
load, resulting from ice, frozen tires,
position and engage the control locks.
and stiffened grease in the wheel
Cowlings and loose equipment will
be suitably secured at all times when
left in an unattended condition.
Do not tow or taxi aircraft with
a. The parking brake system for the aircraft
deflated shock struts.
incorporates two lever-type valves, one for each wheel
brake. Both valves are closed simultaneously by pulling
(2) Towing. Towing lugs are provided on the
out the parking brake handle. Operate the parking brake
upper torque knee fitting of the nose strut. When it is
necessary to tow the aircraft with a vehicle, use the
1. Depress both pilot's toe brakes.
necessary, use towing lugs on the main landing gears.
Use towing lines long enough to clear nose and/or tail by
2. Pull parking brake handle out. This will
at least 15 feet. This length is required to prevent the
cause the parking brake valves to lock the hydraulic fluid
aircraft from overrunning the towing vehicle or fouling the
under pressure in the parking brake system, thereby
retaining braking action.
d. Ground Handling Under Extreme Weather
Extreme weather conditions necessitate
particular care in ground handling of the aircraft. In hot,
Parking brake cannot be set by using
dry, sandy, desert conditions, special attention must be
copilots brake pedals.
devoted to finding a firmly packed parking and towing
area. If such areas are not available, steel mats or an
3. Release pilot's toe brake pedals.
equivalent solid base must be provided for these
purposes. In wet, swampy areas, care must be taken to