Turbulence or action to be accomplished when the
Night flying is very closely related to instrument
aircraft reaches the lower altitude will govern the type of
flying and may often be conducted almost entirely under
letdown. When a low ceiling exists, do not extend flaps
instrument conditions. Before takeoff, it is imperative to
to full down (100%) until runway is in sight and landing is
ensure that all lights, instruments, and avionic equipment
assured. If it is necessary to make an emergency
are functioning properly.
Generally, interior lighting
instrument descent, the rate during the last 1000 feet
should be kept to the minimum amount which will still
prior to landing should be adjusted to less than 500 feet
allow complete visibility of all instruments and gages.
Excessive cockpit lighting decreases outside visibility.
Avoid using landing lights when in thick haze, smoke, or
8-36. Night Flying.
fog, as reflected light will reduce visibility and may affect
depth perception. During ground operations, the aircraft
should be taxied slowly. Once rolling it is difficult to
judge actual ground speed and excessive speeds may
Autoignition shall be used during
be developed without realizing it.
night operations above 14,000 feet.
Section IV. FLIGHT CHARACTERISTICS
8-37. Normal Flight Characteristics.
to prevent yaw will also prevent a tendency to roll. A
pitching tendency will develop if the aircraft is held in the
The flight characteristics of the aircraft are normal
stall, resulting in the nose dropping sharply, then pitching
throughout its speed range.
to above the horizon; this cycle is repeated until recovery
(2) Control is regained very quickly with little
Ample stall warning in the form of buffeting or
altitude loss, providing the nose is not lowered
mechanical stall warning, is usually given when a stall
excessively. Begin recovery with forward movement of
This buffet warning will occur at
the control wheel and a gradual return to level flight. In
approximately 5 to 10 knots above stall speed with the
normal power-on stalls, a steep climb attitude is
aircraft in clean configuration. With full wing flaps, the
required. Unless the attitude is maintained, the aircraft
buffet will occur almost simultaneously with the stall. If a
will generally "buffet" instead of stall. The roll tendency
forward loading condition exists, minimum control speed
caused by yaw is more pronounced in power-on stalls,
may be encountered rather than full stall. If correct stall
as is the pitching tendency; however, both are easily
recovery technique is used, very little altitude will be lost
controlled after the initial entry.
The roll can be
during the stall recovery. The terms "power on" and
prevented by proper rudder pressure. Power-on stall
"power-off" will be employed during discussion of
characteristics are not greatly affected by landing gear
specific stall situations. For the purpose of this section,
and wing flap position, except that stalling speed is
the term "power-on" shall mean that both engines and
propellers of the aircraft are operating normally, and are
responsive to pilot control. The term "power-off" shall
mean that both engines are operating at idle power.
b. Power-Off Stalls.
The roll tendency is
considerably less pronounced in power-off stalls (in
a. Power-On Stalls.
either takeoff, landing, or clean configuration), and is
more easily prevented or corrected by proper use of
(1) The power-on stall attitude is very steep.
rudder and aileron. The nose will generally drop straight
A light buffet precedes stalls, and the first indication of
through, with some tendency to pitch up again if
approaching stall is a decrease in control effectiveness,
recovery is not made immediately. With wing flaps
accompanied by a continuous tone from the stall
down, there is little or no roll tendency and stalling speed
warning horn (refer to Stall Warning System, chapter 2).
is 7 to 8 knots slower than with wing flaps up. Figure 8-4
The stall itself is characterized by a rolling tendency if
shows the indicated power-off stall speeds with landing
the aircraft is allowed to yaw. The proper use of rudder
gear and wing flaps UP or DOWN.