Section V. ADVERSE ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
weight and drag and possibly limit control surface
The purpose of this section is to inform the pilot of
the special precautions and procedures to be followed
during the various weather conditions that may be
encountered in flight. This section is primarily narrative;
e. Before Takeoff.
only those check lists that cover specific procedures
electrothermal deicer system and all anti-icing systems,
characteristic of weather operations are included. The
just prior to takeoff. Also accomplish the BEFORE
f. Takeoff. Takeoff procedures for cold weather
8-45. Cold Weather Operation.
operations are the same as for normal takeoff. Follow
Operating difficulties may be encountered during
may cause enough drag to prevent takeoff. Light snow
extremely cold weather, unless proper steps are taken
or ice will decrease the traction of the tires. Use of
prior to or immediately after flight. All official personnel
brakes and nose wheel steering may be ineffective.
should understand and be fully aware of the necessary
procedures and precautions involved.
g. During Flight . It may be advisable to cycle the
landing gear a few times after takeoff to dislodge ice
a. Preparation For Flight . Accumulations of snow,
accumulated from spray of slush or water on runway.
ice or frost on aircraft surfaces will adversely affect
Trim tabs and controls should also be exercised
takeoff distance, climb performance and stall speeds to
periodically to prevent freezing. If visible moisture is
a dangerous degree. Such accumulations must be
inadvertently encountered, antiicing systems should be
removed before flight. Refer to chapter 2, Section XII.
In addition to the normal exterior checks, following the
removal of ice, snow or frost, inspect wing and
empennage surfaces to verify that these remain
sufficiently cleared. Also, move all control surfaces to
confirm full freedom of movement. Check tires for
proper inflation and assure that they are not frozen to
wheel chocks or to the ground. Use ground heaters to
If icing conditions are encountered
free frozen tires. When heat is applied to release tires,
during approach, slightly higher-
the temperature should not exceed 160F (71C). In
than-normal airspeed should be
extreme emergencies, tires may be inflated to 1.5 times
maintained in order to compensate
the normal pressure to break adhesions to ice, then
for the additional increased drag,
restored to normal pressure. Use external power source
additional weight, and higher than
for starting engines.
normal stall speeds.
b. Engine Starting. Observe engine starter time
limits. If there is no rise in engine oil pressure after 30
seconds or pressure drops below minimum (40 PSI),
shut down the engine.
In order not to impair pilot visibility,
c. Warm-Up and Ground Test.
reverse thrust should be used with
procedures and ground test will follow those outlined in
caution when landing on a runway
covered with snow or standing water.
d. Taxiing Instructions . Avoid taxiing through slush
j. Engine Shutdown. Follow the normal engine
and water if possible. Water and slush splashed on the
wings, antennas and empennage may freeze, increasing
Change 7 8-25