Ensure that tires are not frozen to wheel chocks or to the ground. Use ground heaters, anti-ice solution, or brake
deice to free frozen tires. When heat is applied to release tires, the temperature should not exceed 71°C (160°F).
Refer to Chapter 2 for anti-icing, deicing, and defrosting treatment.
b. Engine Starting. When starting engines on ramps covered with ice, PROP levers should be in the FEATHER
position to prevent the tires from sliding.
c. Warm-Up and Ground Test. Warm-up procedures and ground test are the same as those outlined in Section
d. Taxiing. Whenever possible, taxiing in deep snow, lightweight dry snow, or slush should be avoided, partic-
ularly in colder FAT conditions. If it is necessary to taxi through snow or slush, do not set the parking brake when
stopped. If possible, do not park the aircraft in snow or slush deep enough to reach the brake assemblies. Chocks
or sandbags should be used to prevent the aircraft from rolling while parked. Before attempting to taxi, activate the
brake deice system, and ensure that the bleed air valves are open and that the condition levers are in HIGH IDLE .
An outside observer should visually check wheel rotation to ensure brake assemblies have been deiced.
e. Before Takeoff.
(1) If icing conditions are expected, activate all anti-ice systems before takeoff, allowing suficient time for
the equipment to become effective.
(2) If the possibility of ice accumulation on the horizontal stabilizer or elevator exists, takeoff shall not be
f. Takeoff. Takeoff procedures for cold weather operations are the same as for normal takeoff. Taking off with
temperature at or below freezing, with water, slush, or snow on the runway, can cause ice to accumulate on the
landing gear and can throw ice into the wheel well areas. Such takeoffs shall be made with brake deice on and with
the ice vanes extended. Before light into icing conditions, set the pilot and copilot WINDSHIELD anti-ice switches
each to the NORMAL position.
g. During Flight.
(1) After takeoff from a runway covered with snow or slush, it is advisable to leave brake deice on to
dislodge ice accumulated from the spray of slush or water. Monitor BRAKE DEICE ON annunciator for automatic
termination of system operation and then turn the switch OFF . During light, periodically exercise trim tabs and
controls to prevent freezing. Ensure that anti-icing systems are activated before entering icing conditions. Do not
activate the surface deice system until ice has accumulated at least 0.5 inch. The propeller deice system operates
effectively as an anti-ice system and it may be operated continuously in light. If propeller imbalance due to ice
does occur, it may be relieved by increasing RPM briely, then returning to desired setting. At +5°C FAT or less,
when operating in visible moisture or when freedom from visible moisture cannot be assured, Ice vanes must be
extended. Ice vanes are designed as an anti-ice system, not a deice system. Should the engine air inlet screens
become blocked, lowering the ice vanes will not rectify the condition.
(2) Stalling airspeeds will increase when ice has accumulated on the aircraft causing distortion of the wing
airfoil. For the same reason, stall warning devices are not accurate and should not be relied upon. Keep a com-
fortable margin of airspeed above the Figure 8-2 stall airspeed. Maintain a minimum of 140 knots during sustained
icing conditions to prevent ice accumulation on unprotected surfaces of the wing. In the event of windshield icing,
reduce airspeed to 226 knots or below.
h. Descent. Use normal procedures in Section II. Brake deicing should be considered if moisture was encoun-
tered during previous ground operations or in-light, in icing conditions with gear extended.
i. Landing. Landing on an icy runway should be attempted only when absolutely necessary and should not be
attempted unless the wind is within 10° of runway heading. Application of brakes without skidding the tires on ice is
very dificult, due to the sensitive brakes. In order not to impair pilot visibility, use reverse thrust with caution when
landing on a runway covered with snow or standing water. Use procedures in Section II for normal landing.
j. Engine Shutdown. Use normal procedures in Section II.
k. Before Leaving Aircraft. When the aircraft is parked outside on ice or in a luctuating freeze-thaw-freeze
temperature condition, use the following procedures in addition to the normal procedures in Section II. After wheel
chocks are in place, release the brakes to prevent freezing. Fill fuel tanks to minimize condensation, remove any
accumulation of dirt and ice from the landing gear shock struts, and install protective covers to guard against possible
collection of snow and ice.